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C oex iop, eae ?eeoaee auyciee, ?oo aec oaueiey eio ie ipo?eou, oi iocooyiio ecuyaeyeo ocopoe ?eeaiee ioeo?aou ac? ioao? e ioao? eioopiaoe?. Hecoiieiio, a iepao? o?epeau oia io?ia ?eeoaeeo eieiio aey ooao, ?ooau oauaoucy, eieou oeio aey pacaoaopoa, oaco?aeiee. E oaiei eioopiaoeee - oaia ec caiux, ia ioe acaeya, aa?iux cocoaaiux ?acoee coapeieiioao oauecoaa.
Iepeaa?a eioopiaoee, caio coaoe, ocouecoaeyeocy ipe ioioue eioopiaoeoiiux, eee ?e eoiioieeaoeoiiux eaiaeoa - ipecca, paaeo, oeeeaeaeiee. K yoei op?i aeaaiooi ceaoaiy aioeie oaocioaaiio io?io ooiecoe eo? e iepoao? eoiiu?oepio? ceou Eioepieo. Bce aiecoe ?e "ioceoeee eioopiaoee" yaey?o coaoe ie ?oo eioe, eae cecoeio cpeacoa iaccoaoe eioopiaoee, coopiepoaaaoo?cy ie a oaio?acue, a ceeaauaa?uo?cy (yooo ipooecc ipoaoe?aeocy ao cex iop, e apya ee eoaaa-eeao ocoaioaeocy) aoaaie. Boo eae ac? ipocoo e ioiyoio.
He oae o? ipoco aoipoc ipeaio?oeiey oaioao eoiioieeaoeoiioao eaiaea apoaoio. Kooopue ec iex eo?oe? Bocio?io ee ec?ecioaeiey oaioao ec eaiaeoa? Cio?eo ee aooaue ipocouecoaoaaou ooaeeuio acyoue eoiioieeaoeoiiue eaiae aec caoex coapaouea? He auoecieo ee co apeieiei Eioepieo ipecco, paaeo e oeeeaeaeiee?
Mio?ecoao ipeaioeo?eiee, eooopue oei ie ieiee caoayocy, eae y o?e ceacae, e ipeaio?oeie?.
Ipe?ae ?ei oaiocia?io (eee ieoaiocia?io - eae o ieiy ioeo?eocy) ecapaou ipeopeoeo, io?io pacoapaoucy, eaeei oapacoi ceo?eeacu coapeieiiay cecoeia cpeacoa iacc-ieaea. Beau ooo aea, eooopue oia ipeiyea cee?ac, yoo pecoeuoao iioaoaeeoaoao aeeyiey oauecoaa, eao ioopeaiocoee e aocio?iocoee, eao eoeuoopu e cooeaeuioe opaaiecaoee. Mecoo, eooopoe caiyee cpeacoaa iaccoaoe eioopiaoee a oauecoae, e poeu, auioeiyeiay eie, aecciopio eie?o oipeaee?iiue cieoeoe?eceee ocoaeiiocoe.
Koaaa aocieeea cecoeia cpeacoa iacc-ieaea? Mo?io c?eoaou, ?oo ao aoopoe ioeoaeie 20-x aoaoa iaoeao oxoayueao aeea, oo ecou cpaco iocee aoeiu, eoaaa pacpocieiiue eoiioieeaoeoiiue eaiaeu ceo?eeecu a iioaoeaiaeuio? cecoeio.
Io eioopiaoey a aeae iaccoaux aaceo, eae ecaecoio, couecoaoaaea e ao ioyaeeiey paaeo e oeeeaeaeiey (oei aoeee ao aocieeioaeiey Eioepieoa), a eieiio eu? a 19-oi cooeeoee. Ecee ooaee?ucy oo ipeioeieaeuioe pacieou ie?ao iaccoaoe ipeccoe e aaceoaie ipeaoecoao?uex aeeoa, oo io?io caycaou aocieeioaeiee iaccoaoe eioopiaoee c ioyaeeieei ie?aoioe aaceou, a oo?iee, ipocoo ie auaeeyou iaccoao? ipecco eae ea?ecoaeiio eioe yoai a pacaeoee ?opiaeecoeee.
Oaiaeo aaceoa aocieeea iecaaeceio oo ie?aoe e ipoaoe?aea couecoaoaaou aoeaoe apeiy a poeoiecioi aeae e iocee ooao, eae oexieea ie?aoe coaea ecioeucoaaoucy aey pacipocopaieiey eiea. Ioyooio ecou ace ocioaaiey c?eoaou iepaoe aaceooe ooo eecooe ioaocoee, eooopue ipoaaaaecy a XVI aeee a Beieoee ca ieeeo? ioieoo "gazzetta", ooeoaa, coacoaeiio, e aociee cai oepiei "aaceoa".
O?eaeaio, oauecoao aceaaa pacioeaaaeo oeie eee eiuie cpeacoaaie pacipocopaieiey eioopiaoee (eae ?e aec yooao?). E ac? ?e ioopeaoaaeecu aeea, ipe?ae ?ei oepoeoe e oeeeiaipaaeeiioe pacipocopaieiee eioopiaoee ipeapaoeeocu, ia ioe acaeya, a oaio ec aeaaiux ciocoaoa oipaaeeiey oauecoaoi. Caia eioopiaoey coaea iaccoaoe, a eoiioieeaoeaiue eaiaeu - eaeiui oeeui.
Ioyooio aa?io oipeaeeeou, eoaaa ie?aou, paaeo, oeeeaeaeiee e Eioepieo ipeoapeee caoe cieoeoe?eceee ea?ecoaa, eooopue ex ooee?a?o ceaoaiy, e io?eio ie?ao ieie ea?o aopuaa ca iepaeicoao.

Ie?aou

Ie?aou, eae iu o?e auycieee, yaeyeocy caiui "apeaiei" eoiioieeaoeaiui eaiaeoi ia ieaieoe. B pacaeoee ioopeaiocoe a ieoouee ?opiaeecoeee cieoeaeecou e ecceeaoaaoeee auaeey?o ieceoeueo yoaioa.
Iepaue, eoaaa ecaecoey o coauoeyx ioeeoe?eceoe ?ecie e oopaoaee auee ipeaiacia?eiu eeou ipaayuee aepxooee. Ha yooi yoaie couecoaoaaee poeoieciue aaceou. K ipeiepo, a Poccee oaeay aaceoa iacuaaeacu "Kopaiou", coapeeoee yeceiieyp eooopoe ooioceocy e 1621-oio aoao. Cocoaaeyee e? auyee iocoeuceoao ipeeaca cieoeaeuio aey oapy, ipe ?oeiee e? ipecoocoaoaaeo ieceoeueo ipeaee??iiux aoyp.
Boopoe yoai ia?aecy a oo apeiy, eoaaa epoa e?aee, eioepeco?uexcy yoeie coauoeyie, pacoepeecy ca c??o ioaieia?ueaocy aaopyicoaa. Oi ciaieioeocy aocieeioaeieei o?e ie?aoioe aaceou. B ooe ?e Poccee ie?aoiay aaceoa aocieeea a 1702-oi aoao io oeaco Ieopa I, eooopoio ieoaxoaeio aueo ipoiaaaiaepoaaou caoe peoopiu, caaoeaaou oauecoaeiioe iieiee e ipeaee?u ia cao? coopoio aaopyicoao.
Ecceeaoaaoeeu ?opiaeecoeee A. E. Ecei cipaaeaeeao caycuaaeo aocieeioaeiee aaceou c ocoaui yoaioi a pacaeoee oauecoaa, a eieiio, "eoaaa ceeaauaa?ocy iaoeoiaeuiue aocoaapcoaa, eoaaa ipoecaoaeoeeuiue ceeu aocoeaa?o oipeaee?iioao opoaiy pacaeoey, eoaaa oopiepo?ocy ocioaiue oauecoaeiiue eeaccu e ooaapiue oaiei ocoaiaaeeaaeo caycu ie?ao iapoaaie oeaeeecoaaiioao iepa".
Ipeapaueiee ipeccu a cpeacoao iaccoaoe eioopiaoee iioaee ecceeaoaaoeee ceeoiiu caycuaaou c iao?io-oexie?eceeie aocoe?eieyie a oaeacoe oexieee ie?aoe e pacipocopaieiey (ioyaeeieei aeo?aoe aoiaae, ipecoeaeieieei e ie?aoioio coaieo iapoaoao aaeaaoeey e o.a.). Tae?e a yooi "aeioaaoo" aocpacoaiee poee pyaoaux apa?aai, e?aee cpeaiee cooeaeuioe ipoceoeee a oauecoaeiioe ?ecie e oauecoaeiioao iieiey eae cpeacoaa cooeaeuio-ioeeoe?eceoao oipaaeeiey (iaipeiep, ioaee?ioe oaco?aeiee e peoeiee eaeex-eeao aoipocoa).
Ioyooio iaccoaay aaceoa c caioao ia?aea caoeao ioyaeeiey a iepao? o?epeau coaea oei eoiioieeaoeaiui eaiaeoi, eooopue io?io iacaaou opoaeei ioeeoe?eceoe aopuau e opaaeoeee, aioceeacoaee ipoaoe?eiioe ioauie eaiaeaie: paaeoaeuaieei e oeeeaeaeieei. (Eioepieo a yooi ciucee cooeo ocoaiyeoi; oi, ia ioe acaeya, aa?e caaoiuaaecy eeou aey oaoaaueiey ciaiee e pacaee?eiee).

Paaeo

Ioopeaiocou a eoiioieeaoeoiioi eaiaee, ciocoaioi aucopo e ia aoeuoee paccooyiey iepeaaaaou eioopiaoe?, couecoaoaaea aceaaa, io io iepe pacaeoey oauecoaa e eao oceo?ieiey ipeoapeoaea ac? aoeuoee cia?eiee. Auiiue eocopu, io?ooaue aoeoae, ceaiaeuiue ooiape - ?oo ooeueo ie ipeieiyeocu c oeeu? cooaueou eioopiaoe? eae io?io aucopee e eae io?io aaeuoe.
Ecoapeoeiee oeeeapaoa a 1844 aoao aiepeeaioei Cyi?yeei Mopce aueo iepaui cepu?ciui oaaoi ia iooe e iaioaeiioe iaccoaoe eoiioieeaoee. Boopui ie ieiee couecoaeiiui yoaioi yaeeocu ecoapeoeiee a 1876 aoao Aeeecaiapoi Aeeeoi oeeeooia.
Oaiaeo ?ooau iepeaaou cooaueiey io oeeeapaoo eee oeeeooio, io?ei aue eae ieieioi ipoaoa, aoo e aeeecu iaa pacaaaeoe oaeiu yeeeopoiaaieoiux aoei iio?ecoao o??iux c eieiaie - A. Maecaeee, A. Aepo, A. Mapeoie e apoaee. Ho eeou 25 aipeey (7 iay io ioaoio coee?) 1895 aoaa Aeeecaiap Ioioa ia caceaaiee Pocceoao oeceeo-xeie?eceoao oauecoaa aoeo?ee oa ecoapeoeiee ei apocoooi?o?eea - ipooapaca paaeoipe?iieea.
Ipoaeeia iepeaa?e iaioaeiioe oiepaoeaioe eioopiaoee ia paccooyiee auea pacpeoeia. E ipaeoe?ecee ao eoioa Boopoe iepoaoe aoeiu paaeo a yooi ieaie ie eieeo ceae paaiux.
Iocee aoeiu, oaiaeo, a aoeuoeicoae copai Caiaaioe Eapoiu paaeo e ie?aou cooeeioeecu c ioaui eoieopeiooi - oeeeaeaeieei. Maccoaoe oaee?eiee oae iacuaaeiui "aoiaoiei cpeeeuei", eacaeocu, cacoaaeo caauou paaeoipe?iieee. Aeecoaeoeeuio, paaeoipe?iiee aue aoaaop?i ec "epacioao oaea" e iepeceeeecy ia eoxi?, a aaooioaeeu, a iaooieee ieeeepoa. Oaiaeo caaaeiee eao aueo apeieiiui yaeeieei e iuie io?io c oaepeiiocou? eoicoaoepoaaou oaeo "paaeopeieccaica".

Teeeaeaeiee

Teeeaeaeiee - aeoy paaeo e eeio. Oo paaeo oio oiaceeaoaaeo opaaiecaoe?, oeiaicoao? ocioao, ipeioeiu ipoapaiiepoaaiey, oo eeio - eao ycue e oaop?eceee ocioau cocaaiey oeeeiepeaa?. Aoeee ooao, oeeeaeaeiee ceo?eo ipoaoe?eieei paaeo aa?e a oexie?eceoi ooiooeiee.
B 1907-oi aoao ipooeccop Ieoepaopaceoao oexioeoae?eceoao eicoeoooa A. E. Poceia caiaoeiooaae iepaue a iepe yeeeopoiio-eo?eaoe oeeeaeceoiiue ipe?iiee, a ?epec ?eoupe aoaa cocaae ocoaioaeo, c ioiouu? eooopoe iepeaae ecoapa?eiee ia paccooyiee. Bce 20-e e ia?aeo 30-ux aoaoa oea iaipy??iieeoay paaooa io coaepoeicoaoaaie? ea?ecoaa ecoapa?eiey. Haeoieo, eoaaa auee ioeo?eiu aocooeiue pecoeuoaou, a copaiax aceao iepa ia?aee pacoe eae apeau iocee ao?ay oeeeoeiopu - a COA (1933), Aepiaiee (1935), Opaioee (1936), Aiaeee (1936), CCCP, Moceae e Eeieiapaae (1938). Oaiaeo, iecioopy ia ea?ouo?cy iaccoaocou "oeeeyaeeiey", ca aucooieeieei, e ipeiepo, io oeeeaeaeie? ipeceaeioa Pocaeeuoa io ceo?a? ooepuoey Bceiepioe aucoaaee a Hu?-Eopee a 1940 aoao ceeaeeo aceao eeou ieceoeueo aecyoeoa ?eeoaee.
Teeeaeaeiee eu? ooeueo ia?eiaeo cao? ioaeaioe oecoaee, io aoeia ipepaaea eao, e iaccoaoe ipoecaoacoao oeeeaecopoa ia?aeocu eeou iocee e? oeoi?aiey.
Booaue, oeeeaeceoiioe aeuaiee a aoeuoeicoae copai a iaccoaoi iacooaae coaeo pacipocopaiyoucy a 50-ue aoau, oo ecou aceao 40 eeo iacaa. Paiee apoaex iaccoaoe pacipocopaieiee oeeeaeaeiee ioeo?eeo a Aiaeee e COA, aae c 1947 io 1968 aoaa oeeeaeuaiee ipaeoe?ecee ioeiocou? oxaaoeeo ac? iaceeeiee, aooeo ao opoaiy iacuueiey, e a ioceeao?uee aoau oea eeou caieia oaiex ioaeeee oeeeaecopoa ia apoaee.
Teeeaeaeiee coaeo opo?eei o?acioe ceeu a poeax oex, eoo eieeo e ieio aocooi, ioceoeueo aoapaeo a ceay oaeee aa?iue oaeoopu "aceioaoueao" eoiioieeaoeoiioao eaiaea eae ioieioaeuiocou, oiepaoeaiocou eioopiaoee e aecoaeuio? coeioeyoe?. C eao ioiouu? io?io iaeaoeee yooeeoeaio aepoeou coauau e?aee, ioceoeueo iaeo eoo ie ioaepeo aeacai caoei. Heieoxoe ipeiep ooao, iie ea?eocy, eaeoe aeceoe ceoao a caeoe iepoaux coauoee io?eo auou ceacaio io oeeeaecopo, io?io iaeoe a ieaaaiei aoeeeaoaceoi oeeuie "Xaoco aeeyeo coaaeoe", aae ipeceaeio, aaau ooaee?u aieiaiee oo ceec-ceaiaaea, caycaiioao co caoee iepcoioe, peoaeo "o?epeaeou" iaeeiueo?, aucopo? e ioaeaoiocio? aoeio. Koceoi ooioueiey auaepaeocy Aeaaiey e... ieo, eoie?io ?e, ieeoo ie iocueaeo ooaa aoecea, ieeoo ie aoiaeo iepiue aopoaa. Bc? auoeoiecaiioe c iopaceoeeuioe iaoopaeecoe?iocou? eicoeiepoeocy e iepeioceocy ia oeeeaeaeiee. Kaapu aoeaoe xpoieee, iea?ouee aeaaiceee ?eiueiu, apaaue iapie a oopie oaeoa "xaee" - ac? yoo ie aoeee, ?ei oeeoey, eooopay, oaiaeo, aeecoaeiia e eu? eae. Oia ipeeoauaaeo e ceae aieiaiee ieeeeoioa eieiio ioooio, ?oo iaaeyaia e peaeecoe?ia. E eu? ioooio, ?oo ?eeoaee io caoee ipepoae eeiea e eio iopoe ie xo?eocy aa?e caaoiaoucy iaa oei, ipaaaa ee oo, ?oo eio iuoa?ocy "ceopieou" c "aoeoaux yepaioa"? He auiucee ee?
?oo ?, ooo ?e caiue aoipoc o coeieie ipaaaeaocoe io?io caaaou e io ooiooeie? e apoaei eoiioieeaoeoiiui eaiaeai. Oaiaeo, ioaoop?cu eu? pac, oeeeaeaeiee ao iioao pac oaeea?aeo "ocaaeaaiee" eioopiaoee aecoaeuio-ceoxoaui aocaeecoaeei ia ?eeoaeea, iaiioao ceeuiee ioaaaeyeo eao aoe?. E yoo, iaaepioe, aeaaiue ieioc oeeeaeaeiey.

Eioepieo

Eioepieo - caioe cae?ee iopo?aeiee eioopiaoeoiioao aoeoaa - aoapae a ceay ace ioeo?eoeeuiue (aipo?ei, e oopeoaoeeuiue oo?e) ?epou eoiioieeaoeaiux eaiaeoa-caoex ipeaoecoaeiieeoa: iaaeyaiocou oeeeaeaeiey, oiepaoeaiocou paaeo, aocio?iocou ioaoopioao aocapaueiey e o?e ioeo?eiioe eioopiaoee e iioaoepaoioao e? ociuceeiey ipeccu. Ooeoaa ?e oi acyecy? Io oiopio ioccepo?ueicy ceoxai, eu? Ieioaaoi a cao? apeiy aey coacoaeiiux io?a coopoaee eoiiu?oepio? ceou, c ioiouu? eooopoe io?io aueo au oaieieaaoucy eioopiaoeee e ioeo?aou pacee?iue caeaeiey, ie auxoay, ?oo iacuaaeocy, ec eaaeieoa. Bc? oaeioe paio eee iocaio coaioaeocy yaiui, ioyooio aceope ceou, eae oaeoaay, coaea aocooyieei oauecoaeiiocoe e c oex iop ceieieeuiuie oaaaie ea?o e aocioacoao a cpeae iacc-ieaea.
Oieeaeuiui, ia ioe acaeya, aocooeicoaoi Eioepieoa e ipe?eioe, eooopay aeeaeo iepoao? eoiiu?oepio? ceou peaeuiui ipeoeiaeiooi ia "ioco aeaaioao eoiioieeaoeoiioao eaiaea ieaieou", yaeyeocy eieiio oa coaoeoiiocou eo?oex ioeo?eoeeuiux ?epo caoex ipapoaeoeeee, o eoex y oioiyioe auoe. Eaeicoaeiioe, ?oo oopioceo ioaeaoiocioe oecoaee Eioepieoa - yoo eao (ioea eu?) ie ceeoeoi aoeuooe eoyooeoeeio oaueaocooiiocoe e, eae yoo oau?io auaaeo, aaiaeuiue copax ?eeoaeea iepea acei ioaui.
Caecu, y ioeaaa?, o?e io?io aeeaou eoe-eaeee auaoau e paccoaaeyou oo?ee iaa i.

Eoae, o?eaeaio, ?oo ea?aoe ioaoe cpeacoao iaccoaoe eioopiaoee, eee eoiioieeaoeaiue eaiae, pacipocopaiyeocu aucopee caoex ipeaoecoaeiieeoa. Ecee ipecce, ?ooau coaou iaccoaoe ioopeaoaaeecu aeea, oo oeeeaeaeiee caaoeaaeo iaccoao? aoaeoope? io?oe iaioaeiio - a oo ee eu? aoaeo c Eioepieooi! Cia?eo ee yoo, ?oo aoeee iocaiee eoiioieeaoeaiue eaiaeu iaoee aoeuoee ooeeee o iac, iaccoaoao ioopeaeoeey eioopiaoee? E ?oo coapue eaiaeu, ioaoaio cieeioe eo?e, co apeieiei ia?ioo "ooiaaaou" ca ieiaaoaiocou??
Ipe?ae ?ei ooaeoeou, io?io oioiyioou, ?oo aiaeeoeee e ecceeaoaaoeee oeacuaa?o ia oo, ?oo ao aoopoe ioeoaeie XX aeea ipoecxoaeo oaeee?eiee aoee cpeoeeuio-ceoxoaoao yeeieioa a copoeoope iaccoaoe eioopiaoee. Ceeaoaaoeeuio, paaeo e oeeeaeaeiee - iaeaoeee ioioeypiue eoiioieeaoeaiue eaiaeu o iaccoaoe aoaeoopee.
Io yoo eeou oaia ec oo?ee cpeiey. Ipooeaope?ey caecu io?eo aucaaou Eioepieo, ioceoeueo oi, auou io?eo, aeccociaoeeuio oocueaeo iac eu? ao apeieia aocioacoaa ipeccu. Kcoaoe ceacaou, eao aecciopiue ie?c (aipo?ei, eae e ie?aoe) - aocio?iocou aocapaoa e o?e ipo?eoaiioe e oaeaeiioe eioopiaoee e e? aoioeieoeeuioe iepepaaooee, a oae?e aocio?iocou auaopa ooe eee eioe oeiu. Yoo oo, ?eao, oau, ie paaeo, ie oeeeaeaeiee ipeaocoaaeou iai ie io?eo...
Tae ?oo? ?oo o iac co "cieieioe eo?ee"? ?oo au ooaeoee y?
? aocuio ia ceay cieeocou ceacaou "Heo".
Heo, ioceoeueo e coaepoeicoao io?io eeou copeieoucy, io ieeoaaa eao ie aocoe?u. Coaepoeiioao eoiioieeaoeaioao eaiaea, o?eaeaio, ie ecoapeooo ieeoaaa, ioooio ?oo, ioipocoo, eao ie io?eo auou. O acex cpeacoa iacc-ieaea ecou caoe ie?cu, io ecou e caoe ieiocu, coaeacio eooopui e ipoecxoaeo aey ea?aoao ?eeoaeea a ooaeeuiocoe caoy apaaaoey eaiaeoa, caoe coacoaeiiue "xeo-iapaa". E aoo eieiio yoa caoaoaa auaopa eoaa eae aa?iee, ?ei aecocieoiue ioooae cocaaou coaepoeiioe cpeacoao iaccoaoe eioopiaoee.
Io a ?oo iu cee?ac eieei a cecoeie iacc-ieaea, oae yoo aioeie eoae?ioe e caeoioiepioe "pacaeeeiee opoaa". Paaeo, oaaoiyy a oe?eiee aiy ace apoaee cpeacoaa oiepaoeaiuie eaeoie?iuie auioceaie ioaocoee, cooauaeo ?TO ipoecxoaeo a iepe a aaiiue ioieio. Be?epoi aeacou iepexoaeo e oeeeaeaeie?, e oio a iaaeyaiux eapoeiax aeioicopepoeo KAK yoo ipoecxoaeeo. A ia ceeao?uee oopo aaceou aa?o oacooyoeeuiue aiaeec ooao, IO?EMO yoo ipoecooeo.








Ciecoe ecioeucoaaiioe eeoepaoopu :
1. Oepcoa A. "Teeeaeceoiiay aoaeoopey", Moceaa, 1973
2. ?poaceee A. ?. "Teeeaeaeiee - ioecee e peoeiey", Moceaa, 1975
3. "World Commmunications", UNESCO, 1975
4. Ecei A. E. "Pocceay aopeaoe?oeoiiay aaceoa", Moceaa, 1985